On Your Doorstep

On Your Doorstep

Paul Strand- “The artist’s world is limitless. It can be found anywhere, far from where he lives or a few feet away. It is always on his doorstep.”

Xavier de Maistre


Lived largely as military man, but is known as a French writer.

His work is parody like, talking about his room, but it still has been told in charming way.

The brother of noted philosopher, Joseph de Maistre published the book he wrote and it became popular, most of people started to write a little travel books.

 A Journey Round My Room (1871)


In 1790 Xavier de Maistre was punished for having gotten into a duel by being put under house arrest for forty-two days. De Maistre cleverly took advantage of his sequestration, finding within his own four walls a wealth of material to dwell on. His short book, Voyage around my Room, recounts his expeditions during that time. It is a travel book like no other. 
       De Maistre suffered few hardships: he had his faithful servant tending to his daily needs, and his dog, Rosine, is a stalwart companion. Physically de Maistre could not roam far and so most of the travels were, indeed, leaps of the imagination — but he did find a surprising amount of material in his fairly comfortable room. He slowly leads the reader around it, describing the pictures on the walls, the vistas and prospects within and beyond the room, exploring and dwelling on objects that are otherwise taken for granted. And what he see brings back memories, focusses ideas, leads him to look at things anew.­ / http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/ancienf/xdem1.htm /

“When I travel thought my room, I rarely fallow a straight line: O go from the table towards a picture hanging in a corner; from there, I set out obliquely towards the door; but even though, when I begin, it really is my intention to go there, if I happen to meet my armchair en route, I don’t think twice about it, and settle down in it without further ado.”
From: Xavier de Maistre ‘Voyage autour de ma chambre’

Sian Bonnell

Dada – Art movement

Domestic items, for making art.

She had a child, and she moved to south west, I bet she felt like a French writer. As she was stuck at home, she tried to look for a way to express her. 1993, she started to take pictures at home.

Everyday Dada – House beautiful




– high contrast of the textures she is using. She plays with opposites, and in a way it is nice, it is like a nightmare of a housewife.

‘The photos represent critical reflection on the space we inhabit, from the domestics of home to the natural landscapes’(From Louise Wolthers essay)

Everyday Dada – Serving Suggestions

. .

Everyday Dada – Serving Suggestions – She presenting different sugesstions. The images are confusing using subjects you would use daily and replacing them with food.

–       The images disrupt and confuse the usual categories of objects and their meaning.

–       Reminds us of home and food magazine – of the familiar cookbook aesthetic or tips on the packet on how to serve food: ‘Serve with a garnish of fresh chopped herbs, a slice of freshly baked bread and a glass of chilled white wine.’(from Louise Wolthers essay)

Andre Kertesz – published book “From my window”

Freelance photographer. Born in Budapest 1894, Died 1985

Moved to New York – he felt isolated in New York

SX70 – polarizer camera, started to take photos from his window.

Built up to personal photos. When his wife died he barely left the flat, most of the images are melonhonic and nostalgic images, things of objects. His home is his world, taking pictures of his home was his way of living.

Hi has a set of images with figures. First started off with two and ended up with one.


This figures become he as lonely individual.


William Eggleston


“It quickly came to be that I grew interested in photographing whatever was there wherever I happened to be. For any reason”

Born 1939 in Memphis, Tennessee

He has everyday view of things, bold with contrast

The angle he uses to create these images. Some would say that his images are ordinary, but still with a detail and meaning behind them.

Changing the angle and being different, taking photos of a bicycle from very low angle can create the feeling of monumental.

Everyday beautiful things, noticing something and taking picture of it, having something in your head and at some point it all comes together.

The ordinary subject matter

Museum of Modern Art, his first show wasn’t huge success; people were interested but not overly excited. After a while, people started to wonder – “how could he notice this at that point”

Unique style to bind beauty and amazing colors.


Nigel Shfran

Dad’s Office (1997 – 1999)


Make his money with fashion photography. Everything he is publishing at the moment is his personal work. He does fashion few times a year and the rest of time he spends on his personal work.

His work is of the moment, where he lives what he sees. He has a feeling to do this, to capture images. Work is about observation of his day life. And finding beauty in things that other people would find disgusting.

He always shooting on 5×4 camera

In a way he is more interested in the story of light of the way it travels across the room and lies on the object. He wants to tell the story to people.

“When I am inspired to photograph something, that’s what I try to respond to. I try to be open to seeing in this way. Maybe it’s not a very modern way of thinking, but I think that’s a very lovely thing.”

Jem Southam


Born 1950, is a key figure in British landscape photography

He is shooting 10×8, he had exhibition last year and published a book last November.  It is not the same to view a image as the pictures of the exhibition. The pictures are objects.

He goes and takes pictures once a month or two months. His projects take time and he is slow with them. Trying to get used to camera or project. And as he usually says: Pictures are objects.

He was working around his house, he didn’t need anything else just a camera and tripod. Much more free and much more flexible – working around your house.



Restricted in your house – no, you have a way to change the viewpoint of have you take picture. You can work around it.

By traveling you can find yourself, but you can loose yourself easily.

“Look at the things around you, the immediate world around you. If you are alive, it will mean something to you, and if you care enough about photography, and if you know how to use it, you will want to photograph that meaningness.” – Paul Strand


Susan Sontag – On Photography

On Photography

Susan Sontag (1933 – 2004)

  • Commented 9/11 attacks and was heavily judged by public. Although there might be people who could agree with it still not brave enough to put it on a paper.
  • Se was brave to express herself; she was gripped by the problems, principally aesthetic, of interpreting images. The further she explore, the stronger become her doubt.

Book published in 1977.

It received the National Book Critics Circle Award for criticism.

Her essays explored the value

We have come much more of a visual society and the way she wrote the book in 1977 is different to what we are now. She still talks about stuff that was patronized over and over again.

Her quotes have been used over and over again.

“Photographs furnish evidence. Something we hear about, but doubt, seems proven when we’re shown a photograph of it…. The camera record incriminates…. Photographs become a useful tool of modern states in the surveillance and control of their increasingly mobilde populations. In another version of its utility, the camera record justifies. A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened. The picture may distort, but there is always a presumption that something exists, or did exist, which is like what’s in the picture”. (Sontag, 1977, p4)

– is photograph absolute truth

Sontag did predicted that photography will change a lot for people and social media.


Diane Arbus, “Sideshow Freaks” –

Diane Arbus killed herself, aged 48, on 26 July 1971. On the 40th anniversary of her death, it’s worth reconsidering her artistic legacy. Her work remains problematic for many viewers because she transgressed the traditional boundaries of portraiture, making pictures of circus and sideshow “freaks”, many of whom she formed lasting friendships with.

If Arbus undoubtedly felt at home among the outsiders she photographed, she also experienced a frisson of guilty pleasure when photographing them. “There’s some thrill in going to a sideshow,” she once confessed of her nocturnal visits to the circus tents of Coney Island, where performers were still earning a living in the 1960s. “I felt a mixture of shame and awe.”

Her works make us question not just her motives for looking at what the critic Susan Sontag – with typical hauteur – called “people who are pathetic, pitiable, as well as repulsive”, but also our own. In perhaps the most angry essay in her book On Photography, Sontag insists that Arbus’s gaze is “based on distance, on privilege, on a feeling that what the viewer is asked to look at is really other”.

“I always thought of photography as a naughty thing to do – that was one of my favotire things about it,” Diane Arbus wrote, “and when I first did it I felt very perverse.”  (Platos Cave, p12)

Is it fine for use to observe such information, does person who holds a camera has a little bit of license to observe what other people don’t? And where are the limits? Should images like “Sideshow freaks” sould be hidden from society?

She is talking about the importance of what we do, and the value of the things. And that we should step back and appreciate things. (Susan Sontag with her book made people question times like these.)

Susan Sontag – On Photography (lecture/discussion notes)

Favorite quotes:

“Being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older, more artisanal images.”

“To collect the photographs is to collect the world.” (I felt that this quote links to p4) – “Newspapers and magazines feature them, cops alphabetize them, museums exhibit them, publishers compile them.”

– By these quotes she represents the importance of visual representation and photographs themselves. The way we use them daily to promote, introduce, inform people and archive them so we could link back to the history.

“What is written about a person or an event is frankly an interpretation, as are handmade visual statement, like paintings and drawings. Photographed images do not seem to be statements about the world so much as pieces of it, miniatures of reality that anyone make or acquire.”

– Although she talks about the truth behind the images, Eddie Adams, war photographer, said to the Time magazine: “The general killed the Viet Cong; I killed the general with my camera. Still photographs are the most powerful weapons in the world. People believe them, but photographs do lie, even without manipulation. They are only half-truth.” (Photo Box p84)

“Photography is not practiced by most people as an art. It is mainly a social rite, a defense against anxiety, and a tool of power.”

(something for “Family Album.”) – “According to a sociological study done in France, most households have a camera, but a household with children is twice likely to have at least one camera as a household in which there are no children.” And “A family’s photograph album is generally about the extended family – and, often, is all that remains of it.”

“It seems positively unnatural to travel for pleasure without taking a camera along.” – from my experience, I have my camera with me 24/7, and when I am with my family I am dragging it along everywhere. Mainly because I am expected to and secondly because I want to capture moments where we are most happy, relaxed and maybe not so happy, it is like a treasure of happiness we are capable looking back at. It isn’t unnatural to travel with out a camera, it is natural to have it with me!!!

“Using a camera appeases the anxiety” and “having a camera has transformed one person into something active, a voyeur: only he has mastered the situation.”– Communication with others might seem easier when you’re hiding behind a frame and your capable of directing them, as you’re the one in charge. Some people use the camera as a mask to avoid any unnecessary communication.

“Picture-taking is an event in itself.”

“After the event is ended, the picture will still exist.” – Documentary photography, a sign that something has happened, the moment has passed, but we have that record of it.

“To take a picture is to have an interest in things as they are,”

“there is something predatory in the act of taking a picture. To photograph people is to violate them, by seeing them as they never see themselves, by having knowledge of them the can never have; it turns people into objects that can by symbolically possessed.” – reviewing people from a side and taking image of them is like taking a part of their soul.

“When we are afraid, we shoot.” – photography is center of experience.

“It is a nostalgic time right now, and photographs actively promote nostalgia.”

Family Album

Family Album


In 1899 George Eastman had marketed his revolutionary hand-held Kodak with the slogan “You press the button, we’ll do the rest”

This was the beginning of an era when the “amateur” … recorded family life. This new technology changed perception of the domestic world and redefined who had the right to record it. / Wells (2004)


I love my family album,

If I have a time or having a bad time – I do look back at those images. They might make me cry, make me smile, but most of all they remind me of my family, of the good times, and maybe not so good times. The people I didn’t know, but my parents knew, the people who I grown up with and some I haven’t seen for far too long time. The places I have visited or I have left and most of all it just keeps the treasure of all my memories. It doesn’t matter, how silly you look with a bow in your hair that is bigger then your head, or your wearing your favorite skirt, which by your mums comment were the only thing you would allowed her to dress you in…

I have stories that have been built around those images, from my mum’s, dad’s, and grandma’s point of view.. My own mischievous scribbles behind the images (that obviously weren’t allowed, as I was tiny and I didn’t had a clue what to or how to write). This is all ME, me and my family, friends and the place.

I believe that we all have these good and not so good memories, we might choose to show these images to others or keep them just to ourselves, but at the end of the day, no matter what we decide to do with them, they (the photographs) will be the story tellers of our life.


What makes me wonder is that if the “Family Album” is all about portraits of people, group shots taken at Christmas, Easter, Christening, Wedding, Birthday, in my case Name Days, New born Babies, Prom and maybe just some ordinary day in kitchen, when mum is cooking, baking and defiantly entertaining us.

As Susan Sontag said: “A family’s photograph album is generally about the extended family and, often, is all that remains of it.”

Does “Family Album” involves shots of your favorite place, food, drinks or a green house with amazing poppies, that are not needed to be at that particular bed, random snaps, that remind you of fabulous road trip through 8 countries (this did happen to me, I was rather moody, and sleepy and so not enjoying early morning run to the nearest shop for a cup of coffee)… Returning to the point I was making, is “family pictures” all about the family, or does the place and space around as tells the story as well as a snap of my grandma sitting by the Christmas tree.?

For me (as a person with point of view) I have to say, that not all of the stuff you have snapped away should be displayed in Facebook, blog or any other delightful 21st century invention.

I know it is what we are tented to do. And I do it, with out thinking of it. Till my brother and his fiancée had a baby girl (yes, I am a proud auntie) that was the moment when I released that those moments should be kept in private. I am not saying that I wouldn’t be tempted to upload silly, adorable and amazing images of this little girl (the same as her parents), but shouldn’t it be decided by her. After all, she is the one we are exposing to other. I don’t count this as being over protective, I count it as being protective over a child, and if one day she decides she will post images of her first birthday, first car, or University graduation, she will have those images and rights to use them as she please.

Social media is bigger then we think it is and it can be used in different way.

  1. To promote yourself

I know that there are people who do produce images of their personal life and still do display them socially as work of art, Richard Billingham (as one of them) photographed his family for many years, and his proximity and familiarity mate it possible for him to record the minute of their everyday life.

Richard Billingham is an artist who is well aware of the nuances of visual culture, and his lengthy study of his family is built upon familiarity and access. It is “family photography” of a remarkable kind, made in the chaotic interior of the family’s council apartment. Billingham says: “I was shocked when I relized that people can’t read photographs… People weren’t seeing any beauty underneath, none of the composition, none of the pattern.” – Surprisingly I don’t see it either. There is nothing pelasing about this image.

But I decided to look at this from different point of view. What about others, what if there are people who can relate their own experience to this. What if, the colors of wallpapers and different patterns reminds them of their own childhood and home, place to feel safe. In this case, yes I can’t agree with the artist and say – you have your point there. There are people and their families are different and the relationships are different, but should it be published?


Richard Billingham, From the series Ray’s a Laugh, 1995

“Changing the Context”

           2. To expand news globally

When it comes to social media, it can be useful for people that have gone missing or have committed crime, these images, that used to be family portraits, that are meant to be for private view turns into something outstanding, something recognized… For example Madeleine McCann was abducted from Praia Da Luz, Portugal on 03/05/2007, at that time I was at Guernsey, visiting my family and her images were displayed everywhere and still there are Airports, bus stops, train stations just a random notice boards, where you are able to see this little girl. These images that has turned from something personal to something global brings people together and it does change the context of “Family Album” into crime and global news.

Madeleine Maddie McCann missing child -797553

Revived and Remade

Revived and Remade

Since at least the mid-1970s, the theory of photography has been concerned with the idea that photographs can be understood as processes of signification and cultural coding.

Postmodernist analysis has offered alternative ways for understanding the meaning of photographs outside the tenets of modernist perspectives.

Postmodernism, in contrast, considered photography from a different standpoint, one that was not intended to serve the construction of a pantheon of photographic creator that mirrored those established for painting and sculpture.

Heavily influenced by the principles of structural linguistics and its philosophical off-shoots structuralism and post-structuralism, particularly as formulated by French thinkers such as Roland Barther (1915-80) and Michel Foucault (1926-84), this theory postulated that the meaning of any image was not of its author’s making or necessarily under his or her control, but was determined only by reference to other images or signs.

Cindy Sherman

Cindy Sherman

The work of American artist Cindy Sherman (b.1954), with its acute invocation of iconic mannerisms from cinematic stills, fashion photography, pornography and painting, is in many respects the prime exemplar of postmodern art photography.

In 1990s, her Untitled Film Stills series was heralded (somewhat ironically in modernist terms of originality) as a seminal and early realization of self-consciously postmodernist artistic practice.

Untitled Film Stills is therefore a demonstration of the argument advanced by feminist theory that “femininity” is a construction of cultural codes and not a quality that is naturally inherent or essential to women.

Both the photographer and the model in the pictures is Sherman herself, making the series a perfect condensation of postmodernist photographic practice: she is both observer and observed.

“I think of becoming a different person. I look into a mirror next to the camera… it’s trancelike. By staring into it I try to become that character through the lens… When I see what I want, my intuition takes over.”
Cindy Sherman

Cindy Sherman

“What is so great about her pictures it is not so much about what your looking at but what has happened before and what happens after?

She is so much of a artist before a photographer, she ‘s been able to create a picture that actually has a soul.” – Robert Longo on Cindy Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills


She constructs her images like a painter and she uses the make-up to render the image. She is the creator and central character in her images. There is something about loneliness and disconnection and kind of misfit going through her work. She really reflects on women life and represents it within clear real life scenes.

Is remaking something we do to communicate with others? Or is it something we do to understand the artist with our own experiences? As guardian.co.uk implied: “Remaking art is an experiment in understanding it – while a critic might try to “get inside” a great painting by describing it in detail, a more direct way is to actually try to enter its imaginative world by restating it as a tableau.”

These days you come across paintings that have been remade into photographs, photographs that have been turned into parody… And now: caught in the act, there are world’s soap operas that uses the same melodramatic expression of the performance, creating a study of our ear’s emotional codes.

“At the heart of this lie the possibilities that postmodern practice represents for contemporary art photographers to. Able to knowingly shape the subjects that intrigue them, conscious of the heritage of the imagery into which they are entering, and to see the contemporary world through the pictures we already know”.

Parody and Pastiche

A parody is a work that ridicules another, usually well-.‐known work, by imitating it in a comic way. By its nature, parody demands some taking from the original work being parodied. A fairly extensive use of the original work is permitted in a parody in order to “conjure up” the original.

A pastiche is a work whose style imitates that of another writer or period. Pastiche differs from parody in that it is usually intended as a kind of tribute rather than a satire.

Pastiche is a tongue-in-cheek imitation or tribute used in literature, art, music, etc. It is performed with respect to, or in homage to, other works, as opposed to parody which is done in ridicule or sarcasm. 


Eddie Adams – GENERAL NGUYEN NGOC LOAN (Thames&Hudson, 2009 p85)

Taken during the early days of the fierce Tet Offensive in Saigon, at the height of the Vietnam War, was the one for which he would always be remembered.

The image was published around the world and raised public awereness of the events that were unfolding in Vietnam, and it won Adams both the Pulitzer Prize and the World Press Photo Award. In this depiction of a brutal execution and the senseless violence of war, the dark side of photography is revealed.

This image of execution came to epitomize the brutality of war and the conplex role played by the eye-witness.

In Time magazine interview Adams said that ‘The general killed the Viet Cong; I killed the general with my camera. Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world. People believe them, but photographs do lie, even without manipulation. They are only half-truths.’


The word wide web has come of age with an estimated one billion users around the globe. Advances in computer technology allow almost anyone with the right software and creativity to produce impression digital art. Throw a political agenda into the mix and you have a Webagandist.

Today a very talented Brazilian left-wing liberal artist named Carlos Latuff produces extreme anti-US and pro-Palestinian cartoons and caricatures. His level of creativity is astounding even if his messages are abhorrent. Occasionally he uses pornography, more often his work is ghoulish, and generally is amusing. He attacks Israeli policy towards the Palestinians and is violently anti-American. He pays particular attention to the war in Iraq and to capitalism. Latuff must be a Pepsi drinker, as he constantly snipes at Coco Cola by showing that the company is the root of all evil. McDonalds receives similar treatment. One of his cartoons fuels the ridiculous conspiracy theory that the US engineered the AIDS virus, with others furthering the myth that 9/11 was orchestrated by the CIA. /http://www.psywar.org/forum/index.php?topic=76.0 /

A swipe at corporate America based on the photograph by Eddie Adams showing a Vietcong officer being shot by police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan

A swipe at corporate America based on the photograph by Eddie Adams showing a Vietcong officer being shot by police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan

Digital Retouching

. “Digital Retouching”

One big issue with retouching models in advertising is that it creates a false truth. This false truth is false adverting. They are selling a product based on an unachievable result.

“Big money” was being made from presenting images of “flawless women” with bigger breasts, whiter teeth and perfect skin. “It’s dishonest, it’s harmful and it has got to change,” Swinson

We, as consumers no longer know when an image is showing us a true representation, or an idealist truth the advertising companies want us to believe in. This is ethically wrong and irresponsible. Some companies have gone so far with this retouching and creating an unachievable result, that their adverts have been bad. The adverting agency (find the name) has felt that they are misleading customers to such a degree the adverts are no longer aloud to be used to advertise the product.

One instance of this is the Lancôme advert featuring Julia Roberts. The results that are shown as ‘from the make up’ are not actually possible. She has clearly been retouched. A lot. Looking at the before and after images you can see just how much the image has been altered. It is the degree of retouching that sells the ‘perfect’ face/look to the consumers. They long to look like the model.

It is this ideal of looking perfect that can lead to people taking drastic measures to look that way. It is fair to say the retouched models on adverts have negative affects on consumers young and old, who buy into the ideal. They feel they don’t have the perfect skin, shiny eyes or perfect figure, like the models. Most of these elements are achieved are through retouching and not an actually existing trait on a real person. The fact is not even the model look like the model on an advert.Former Cosmopolitan editor Leah Hardy stated, “Thanks to retouching, our readers never saw the horrible, hungry downside of skinny. The models’ skeletal bodies, dull, thinning hair, spots and dark circles under their eyes were magicked away by technology … A vision of perfection that simply didn’t exist.”1

“Cosmetic surgery rates are rising dramatically as are the numbers suffering from eating disorders. We need to bring some honesty into advertising.” Swinson

This alone shows the negative impact of retouching on Consumers. People trying to achieve the ‘model thin’ look are not aware of the risks. They see an incredibly skinny model looking healthy, and feel that that look is actually achievable and a positive thing.

Ettie Spencer, a delegate from East Lothian who has worked both in the mental health field and as a university lecturer teaching young people, said: “What is wrong with requiring advertisers to state that images have been manipulated in the same way that cigarette packet must carry a health warning?”

People don’t see the “backstage” of digital era. They assume that what they see is what they get, and they are willing to pay the price to look like one of those shinny magazine models. Yes, why wouldn’t we do everything to look as glamorous as they do? After all, they have everything “we” desire.

“A survey for one magazine found that one third worry about the way they look “every waking minute of their day.” /Swinson

How far are we willing to go lying to ourselves?


Subculture – Shock and Style

Subculture: shock and style.

Varieties of culture – visual, aural, artifacts, spaces.

Culture – ‘The term culture, in what is known as the “anthropological defini9on”, refers to “ a whole way of life”, meaning a broad range of activities geared towards classifying symbolically within a society’

(Sturken and Cartwright 2009: 3)

‘ Culture [and subculture] is produced through complex networks of talking, gesturing, looking, and ac9ng, through which meanings are exchanged between members of a society or group. Objects such as images and media texts come into play in this network of exchange not as sta9c en99es…but as ac9ve agents that draw us to look and to feel or speak in par9cular ways…’ (Sturken and Cartwright 2009: 3)

Subcultures tend to be groups of young people, with similar beliefs, skills, and interests. Something that ties them together and differs them from everyone else. They have a distinct difference from the main culture. Some form a resistance against the dominant culture. For example, the punk movement, they dressed the same, get different from the norm, they all believed in the same morals, and ethics, and they grouped to protest against the norm.


In 1970’s – the arrivals of punk, the first concrete punk rock scene appeared in the mid 70’s in New York. Bands like The Ramones, New York Dolls, Blondie and the Talking Heads were playing regular.

England youth were angry, rebellious and out of work. They had strong opinion and a lot of free time.

How are subcultures and creatively linked?

Avant-garde – the shock of the middle class. The avant-garde movement changes the norm in art. Impressionist artists arrived breaking the rules and changing the face of art.

The bourgeoisie – the wealthy class that became rich due to capitalism. The avant-garde artists wanted to shock them to show their displeasure at what society had become.

What once ‘shocked’ is now the norm. Once the shock has worn off the art and meaning become accepted and something new is needed to shock. For example, the work of Manet was considered shocking in the 18th century, but his work found its self on chocolate boxes a little while later. The pattern has repeated itself through out history and into modern times. The shock leads to an introduction into the mainstream.

Dada – literary and artist movement during Europe during World War 1. Anti-war artists used any public forum to metaphorically protest against the war. The Dadaists were fed up with society and wanted no place in it. However there work fell apart when it became acceptable and part of society. Dada gave birth to surrealism.

The artists too everyday items and re-appropriated them as art. Marcel Duchamp’s, fountain, is just a signed urinal, but as he said it was art, it now is. It is in the louver and worth millions.

It was not until the second have of the 20th century that subcultures played with style. Teds, Mods, Rockers, Punks and skinheads are all highly visible and noticeable subcultures. They have distinctive forms of dress, highly visible behaviors and a distinctive form of speech.

The rise of the subculture links to the rise of the teenager. Social change meant young people had money and time before they had to settle down into adulthood.

These subcultures caused social panic and were believed to be a dangerous problem. A threat to mainstream culture. Parents want their children be like them, and children what to be nothing like their parents. This caused conflicts and social unrest.

In the 1950’s the ‘teddy boy’ subculture arrived. It became the first visible subculture in the UK. It came from the rock and roll music brought from the states by the GIs during the war.

The 1960’s brought the Mods. The Mods were Britain’s first original youth subculture. The look developed from continental film. They were fashion conscious sharp dressers. Mods or Moderns emerged partly from the jazz scene and partly from the working class tradition of competitive dressing. Mods dressed like middle class businessmen. They wore Italian-cut, custom-made suits from Cecil Gee and teamed them with polo shirts (Fred Perry) and neat Vidal Sassoon haircuts. They also rode Vespa (Lambretta) motor scooters. Mods liked Black music and those who had grown up with newly settled West Indian neighbours adopted elements of Black styling and a taste for Jamaican Ska. They experimented with drugs. London Mod bands of the 1960s included the Small Faces, The Who and The Kinks.

Around the same time the ‘rockers’ subculture emerged as well. The Rockers enjoyed Rock and Roll, and their style consisted of jeans, boots and leather jackets. Rockers mostly favored 1950s and early-1960s rock and roll by artists such as Gene Vincent, Eddie Cochran, Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley and Elvis Presley. They wore black leather and studs, had anti-authority beliefs. The Rockers lived for the present, with a scruffy, masculine, ‘bad boy’ image.

The rockers and mods clashed, due to conflicts in interests. The rockers disliked the Mods need to use drugs and found them inferior for this. This caused many fights and killings between the two cultures. This conflict is presented in the 1976 movie Quadrophenia. The movie depicts a summer spent by ‘Jimmy’ and his life as a Mod. Including a trip to Brighton, to fight the Rockers.

Mod culture progressed into skinhead culture through the introduction of Jamaican RudeBoy cultures. By the 1980’s the culture had a racist reputation and became known for violence. Today the skinheads are a notorious subculture.

Taste, Value and Judgement

“Taste, Value and Judgement”

  • In sociologytaste is an individual’s personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference. Taste is about drawing distinctions between things such as styles, manners, consumer goods and works of art. Social inquiry of taste is about the human ability to judge what is beautiful, good and proper.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste_(sociology) /


Taste – Looking back at things that lasted for so long, as my mum’s teddy bear, she had when she was five and I still was able to have it next to me during the night, now things don’t last. And is it because of us, does our children play with the toys differently, or is it because the market has been made into life cycle, where you buy, play, bin and buy again?!

There are things that I would pay a lot of money for and then there are things I just don’t get it!

In matter of fact – the Barbie that have been created 1999 and now cost £50 000 00 (more then our houses)!!!

Or Ipad 2 Gold History Edition, which cost £5, 000 000.00 (would you even take it out of your house, not to mention your safe?)



Value –  Price often observably alters with supply and demand, scarcity, therefore Economists have come to define the subject by it: “choices between alternative uses of scarce resources”

So air is not scarce and therefore has no price and can be quickly dropped from economic consideration. Although as a basic need it clearly has intrinsic value to us.

Even the most perfect reproduction of a work of art is lacking in one element: its presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be. This unique existence of the work of art determined the history to which it was subject throughout the time of its existence.

I think that this applies to any kind of artwork or personal belonging that is special to the world or just us.

Either if it is a painting of Mona Lisa or picture of your family being all together by Christmas table, they have value, Mona Lisa – will have a actual price in the market, were your family portrait will have the value in your heart and your time line.



Yi-Fu Tuan – “Space and Place”

Yi-Fu Tuan – “Space and Place”

The Perspective of Experience


At the end of this seminar we had to produce visual interpretation of what we have read about in this chapter.

As it was visual exercise we were able to work with verities of magazines, newspapers and some old books to produce the final outcome.

I started this task by reading through the chapter and highlighting the quotes I felt explained the meaning of “Space and place”, the most.

From the book:

“There is no place like home”

“Space and place are basic components of the lived world”

“Surrounded by a wall and administered from a medieval town hall, it gave the impression of a small, protected, and self-contained world.”

“Visits to the big city curiously reminded him of the sea.” – “feeling of openness, infinity, unrestricted space.”

Linking such a different environments together – for some doesn’t make sense, but when you look at their power as equal, the scale talks for it self.

“by the fact that Hamlet lived here, suddenly the wall and the ramparts speak a quite different language. The courtyard become an entire world, a dark corner reminds us of the darkness in the human soul, we hear Hamlet’s “to be or not to be.”.”

– And once we know that, Kronberg becomes quite a different castle for us.

Our minds will play games just to visualize the possibility of the artists being and working in this room/castle. We want to see it and feel it, as it would be a small part of us, we have forgotten for a while.

“nonhuman animals also have a sense of territory and place.” – “Places are centers of felt value where biological needs such as those for food, water, rest, and procreation, are satisfied.”

“We measure and map space and place,”

“We have privileged access to state of mind, thoughts and feelings.”

“Culture is uniquely developed in human beings. It strongly influences human behavior and value. The Eskimos’ sense of space and place is very different from that of Americans.”

““Space is more abstract then place.” What begins as undifferentiated space becomes place as get to know it better and endow it with value.”

“We know our home intimately; we can only know about our country if it is very large.”

“People tend to suppress that which they cannot express.”

“place as images of complex – often ambivalent – feelings.”

“perhaps each statement should end with a question mark or be accompanied by qualifying clauses.”

What I learned was that – we all going to have different meanings either we are talking about “space” or “place”, as it is said in the book – “Artists have tried – often with success. In work of literature as well as humanistic psychology, philosophy, anthropology and geography, intricate worlds of human experience are recorded.” We still going to talk about and try to explain it in the books.

But what truly “space and place” means to us – can we read it in a book? 

Final Outcome

Final Outcome

Visual Representation

Visual Representation

If you don’t push the boundaries, you wont go anywhere…

In the wake of the controversy surrounding Dolce & Gabbana's use of Blackamoor imagery in their Spring 2013 collection, the fashion house has issued an explanation on its website Swide.com. The post says that the heads used in their designs are based on "Moorish" figures-- "a term used to define many peoples throughout history...In Sicily’s case it defines the conquerors of Sicily." It goes on to explain more of Sicily's specific cultural history behind the figures, including their role in inspiring "beautiful artifacts (vases, lamps, etc). However, as we state in the article below, the images are also seen as taboo, offensive and racially insensitive. The Mammy-looking figures recall a past of slavery and servitude that many don't want to be reminded of--especially via a fashion statement.

In the wake of the controversy surrounding Dolce & Gabbana’s use of Blackamoor imagery in their Spring 2013 collection, the fashion house has issued an explanation on its website Swide.com. The post says that the heads used in their designs are based on “Moorish” figures– “a term used to define many peoples throughout history…In Sicily’s case it defines the conquerors of Sicily.” It goes on to explain more of Sicily’s specific cultural history behind the figures, including their role in inspiring “beautiful artifacts (vases, lamps, etc). However, as we state in the article below, the images are also seen as taboo, offensive and racially insensitive. The Mammy-looking figures recall a past of slavery and servitude that many don’t want to be reminded of–especially via a fashion statement.

Dolce & Gabbana caused massive discussion in media because they dressed white girl in dress that represents black women and wearing earrings from “black” people culture.

There are more then two ways of how to take the advert. Other countries veiw racism and culture differnetly than American’s so we should give them a pass. Curious though that they want to celebrate a culture but have no one from that culture representing – so would there be any difference if the women wearing this outfit would come from different race?


We need to be able to laugh at our selves. But we have to be able to put our selves in their shoes. We live in world of Political correctness and there is no surprise that advertiser might get sacked. There will be people who will like the outfit and then there will be people who will find it offensive.

The world of Advertising depends on stereotypes.

People are not products. They have unique traits, emotions and capabilities. Instead of advertising to these needs, marketers tend to illustrate all the things an individual “should be.”


It seems like recent advertisements have become bolder than ever in their use of gender stereotypes and sexism to try to sell a product.



Julia Roberts – A campaign she did for the brand last year was banned by the Advertising Standards Authority, who deemed L’Oreal, parent company of Lancome, had used digitally retouched images that could ‘mislead’ the viewer.

L’Oreal said at the time that image had been digitally re-touched to ‘lighten the skin, clean up make-up, reduce dark shadows and shading around the eyes, smooth the lips and darken the eyebrows’. However, again, it insisted that the image was an accurate reflection of the benefits of the product.

The ASA was not convinced, ruling the images could not be used again in their current form.

Here though, it cannot be denied that Julia Roberts is in possession of a striking natural beauty.

Edward Ackerley, an instructor at the Eller College of Management department of marketing, said that advertising is reflective of the current mindset of society.

“It’s simply like holding up a mirror,” Ackerley said. “Advertising will only go so far as society has gone.” 

 I feel that advertising goes feather each year, as they have achieved something new they wont stop till they release something more extravagant and push the boundaries.

The need of being interesting in the market is understandable, but when it comes to advertisers picking out girls who look much younger then they are it will cause contribution and consequences – angry parents and confused children


Victoria's Secret Sells to High School Girls. So What?

Victoria’s Secret Sells to High School Girls. So What?

Victoria’s Secret recently launched a new advertising campaign with the slogan “Bright Young Things” for their popular Pink line, which is aimed at younger women. It probably would have gone unnoticed, except that Business Insider reported on the CFO of the company admitting that Victoria’s Secret wants to sell to high school girls as well as college girls.

“When somebody’s 15 or 16 years old, what do they want to be?” Chief Financial Officer Stuart Burgdoerfer said at a conference. “They want to be older, and they want to be cool like the girl in college, and that’s part of the magic of what we do at Pink.”

This simple and frankly obvious comment was all people needed to go off into a self-righteous huff about how The Sex would be the ruin of a generation of girls. Angry father Evan Dolive wrote a letter to Victoria’s Secret that went viral:

I want my daughter (and every girl) to be faced with tough decisions in her formative years of adolescence. Decisions like should I be a doctor or a lawyer? Should I take calculus as a junior or a senior? Do I want to go to Texas A&M or University of Texas or some Ivy League School? Should I raise awareness for slave trafficking or lack of water in developing nations? There are many, many more questions that all young women should be asking themselves… not will a boy (or girl) like me if I wear a “call me” thong?



They are right by one thing – young girls want to be older and more fashionable, like their older sister or someone they have seen in TV, but should we persuade them to grow up early, and saying that, will those girls take the responsibility as grownups or just pretend to be ones.

Why don’t we just let them be what they are – kids, children who shouldn’t rush into adulthood.


Memory and Memorial

Memory and Memorial

” We are only what we remembering being” / John Locke /

Memory and Memorials are a lot a like. Memory is in our heads and our hearts, when memorials are right in front of us to make us remember.

Public memorials and monuments attract millions of visitors each year and, it is common to find memorials honoring fallen soldiers or significant event in the community’s history.

When it comes to understand the image it is important where you come from. The images are about the meaning behind them and with out our own memory they may not mean the same things as for others.

During the “Memory and Memorial” lecture I understood that connotation is important thing to produce successful image.

Poppies growing on the Somme batlefield near Thiepval in France

Poppies growing on the Somme batlefield near Thiepval in France

‘In Flanders field the poppies blow

Between the crosses, row on row,

That mark our place; and in the sky

The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below’

/ Written by Canadian Lt-Colonel John McCrae whilst he was on active service at Ypres, Belgiu,, 1915. /

The poppy has come to symbolise those battlefields of France and Belgium during that conflict and is still worn today as a mark of remembrance.

 People associated things/props depending on the situation they have grown up in. As I have lived in UK, for few years I know the meaning of poppy and how important it is to people who live here, but if I would bring this image across to my grandmother who has never experienced such a thing, she would have completely different meaning for it.


The Changing Face of War



About TIME Magazine:

Since its founding in 1923, TIME Magazine has been one of the most authoritative and informative guides to what is happening in the worlds of health and science, politics, business, society and entertainment. Every week, close to 2 million affluent consumers, frequent travellers and senior business people turn to TIME EMEA for award winning coverage of the key issues affecting the region.

TIME sparks debate. Progressive ideas and provocative topics and gets the nation and the world talking

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TIME responds immediately when big news breaks. TIME published a special Michael Jackson commemorative issue within 36 hours of his unexpected death

TIME Understands your world

This is the final article for our group project on war photography.

The Time Magazine Cover

The Time Magazine Cover


During this seminar we (me and the people in my group) were looking at “Changing Face of War”, it all started with similar interests into photography and meanings behind some of the iconic images that has been shot during world wars.

We looked at several iconic photographers that have evidenced moments that have showed us the meaning of documentary photography then and some of the photographers who are taking pictures in 21st century.

We tried to compare film with digital and the images that have been taken.

From what we researched and experienced through books and internet we all agreed that no matter when it was taken, the scenes can be terrifying and dramatic as well as humorous and relaxed.

There were different artists – who posed the image, by asking the officers stand in one position and pose to the camera, and then there were photographers who were there with the soldiers, running to save their life and fight for the right. It is very hard when it comes to judge these types of images – they both show the atmosphere and situation, but when it comes to show the real fight between the soldiers and man made “army”, the ones that have been taken during the fight represent the moment, what “we – people who are waiting for their loved ones to return”, scare the most.

Back then and now – they still are images that will shock us, make us cry or bring a smile into our faces. No matter how they are represented – by still position, smiling to the camera, having a picnic, or in action saving lives, crying for the lost and finally looking into the lens with scared and lonely eyes, they still will be our heroes!!!

David Douglas Duncan

 David Douglas Duncan

I have always thought of there being two types of photographers: those that capture the moment, and those who create it.

I think that documentary war photographers such as Don McCullin, Robert Capa and David Douglas Duncan, they are the true artists. They are image makers who have captured moments that have changed the way we see the world.

David Douglas Duncan, Exhausted US Marine at Con Thien, Vietnam

David Douglas Duncan is one of the most influential photographers of the 20th Century. He photographed WW2, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War as well as many other things (like Pablo Picasso). After WW2, he joined LIFE.

His career as photojournalist had its orgin when he took photoghraphs of a hotel fire in Tucson, Arizona.

While probably best know for his images of the Korean War, I find his Vietnam shots to be the most stirring. The capture of the moment when soldiers are walking past dead bodies or just a picture of a portrait that shows the fear they are facing, everything is overwhelmed and full with emotions.

The photos tell a story about a wrong second of someone else’s hate, or love, or indifference. They clearly represent the action where soldiers are facing the fight, the fear in their faces and death of their friends and family members.

Most of his work is dismal, with very dramatized sky and dark foreground. As it is captured in black and white I think it adds an extra mood and sadness to the scene.

With good composition skills and paying attention to every single detail, he has managed to bring across the sense of the environment the soldiers are forced to live in. I think the images clearly tell the story of how devastating war can be.

David Douglas Duncan,
[Marines load their dead into a waiting chopper on the metal-slab airstrip at Khe Sanh. February 1968.] “Clouds sank lower upon Khe Sanh and its airfield . . . Night was near when two great birds beat through the clouds to squat upon the runway . . . messengers come now to carry off the fallen men of that day’s battle. Men joining those other men killed in all other wars. Then they were gone. And it was night.” War Without Heroes, p. 248.

Intimate Life

Intimate Life

  • Intimate photography uses the aesthrtic qualities of family snap shots, as this is recognised by the viewer and they can tell the subject and narrative of the image is very personal. This is why some images are not technically strong as photographs.
  • It can show the subtext, which could be hiding in those traditional family photos. The conflict behind the family members that wont stand next to each other or the hidden lives of the family “black sheep.”

/ Leanne Arnlod /

Nan Goldin (American photographer)

Goldin began taking photographs as a teenager in Boston, MA. Her earlier works, black-and-white images of drag queens, were celebration of the subcultural life style of the community to which she belonged.

Nan Goldin clearly has showed her culture and lifestyle through her images. As she started her photography career from early age, she, as all teenagers, had different view/idea about “realxing”… I think it was one of the main reasons why she started to take photos of drag queens and the slowely build up her portrait shoots of her friends, lovers and family.

I think most of the art work she produced and displayed was offensive and odd, for those days. No one could of imagine that these “happy family portraits” could turn into this vulnerable and “ugly” truth.

‘One Month After Being Battered’

Intense red blood in the white of her swollen left eye mirrors the shade of her lipstick. Dark bruises colour the skin around it and below her right eye. In contrast to her physical damage she defiantly offers to the camera, she appears well groomed. Her hair is glossy and well brushed and, in addition to the bright red lipstick, she is wearing dangly earrings and nacklace.

She has photographed herself against a piece of dark wooden furniture and a white embroidered curtain that appears bluish in the artificial night-time light. The dark shadow behind her head indicate the use of flash bulb.

/  http://www.tate.org/art/artworks/goldin-nan-one-month-after-being-battered-p78045/ /

Nan Goldin, Battered

My view before I read this text in Tate website was – “What a terrible photo.” I assumed that she hasn’t paid any attention to the composition and the lighting. The image isn’t as strong as it could be, apart from the fact that there is a woman who has been battered, which gives the image the most “wow” effect.

I thought that this is one of the cases where an amature picks up the camera and takes a random photo. Clearly she knew how to present herself at the best in the worst situation.

There is a lot of detail I didn’t paid any attention mostly because, I judged the image straight after I saw it. It exposed a moment of woman’s personal life, bold with contrast of poor and tacky lifestyle.Straight away I didn’t feel sorry for her, because I assumed that she was an alcoholic or a drug addict, so she must have deserved it. ( I know that it wasn’t the right judgment … )

Now, when I have heard the reason and have read the story behind it, it doesn’t matter that the image isn’t strong – either composition wise or even the lighting. What I care is the concept, that she did it for herself no one else. She took this photo to remind herself not to go back to this situation and never ever fall for the same mistake. Love it!

Dorothea Lange – Migrant Family

Dorothea Lange – Migrant Family

Dorothea Lange – Migrant Family

Better known as Migrant Mother, this iamge is a portrait of Florence Owens Thompson and her childern, made at a pea pickers camp at Nipomo, California. Dorothea Lange pictures the family as both resilient and vulnerable. She saw her photography as “a tool of research”, and this image was made during a field trip for aa Resettlement Administration. It brought the plight of migrant workers and the extent of rural poverty to public attention.

However, controversy surrounds the photograph because it was published after Lange has assured Owens that it would be used for research purposes only.

Lange made six exposures of Owens holding an infant, with two of her children standing on either side of her, heads bowed, faces averted from the camera. This close-up focuses attention on the passive demeanor of the poorly dressed, prematurely aged woman, gazing pensively away from the camera. In fact, everyone in the photograph is passive, submitting to the camera. The construction of the photograph, with a child on either side of Owens, has a powerful symmetry – a Madonna flanked by cherubs, bedraggled poverty.

” While there is perhaps a province in which the photograph can tell us nothing more then what we see with our own eyes, there is another in which it proves to us how little our eyes permit us to see.” / Dorothea Lange /

There is always more then one way how to tell the story. In this case ‘Migrant Mother’ is overwhelming and vulnerable photograph. It brings across the mood of the place and shows to the people how poor and passive is this family with no support and help from anyone.

 I think that this is the most powerful image out of them all, showing the close up of the mother and her children.

Alexander Gardner (Documentary Photography)

The truth is balance. However the opposite of truth, which is unbalance, may not be a lie.
/ Susan Sontag /

Alexander Gardner

Alexander Gardner
Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg

A sharpshooter has come to grief in a rocky gully. His eyes are losed and his belongings scattered; someone has propped his gun against the stones of the embrasure, as a sign of his trade.

There is strong evidence to suggest that this picture was staged. Its content is heavy with meaning – sharpshooters representing sight and the rocks symbolizing nature in the raw.

/ The Photo Book, p167 /

Gardner felt no compunction about rebuilding a scene for his camera to witness. He used artistic “effect” to deliver what he considered to be an accurate representation based on the foundation developed by painters and sculptors for depicting historical events.

Gardner arrived two days after the ferocious battle of Gettysburg and moved the body of a Confederate infantryman about 40 yards and added a Springfield musket (not a sharpshooter’s rifle) to the scene, and turned the corpse’s face toward the camera, thus forcing viewers to gaze directly into the tragedy that produced 51,000 casualties.

I think that documentary photography should be about the truth. To represent the situations we are unable to experience, to share the moment, even if it is not pleasant.

I do not support photographers who use their position as documentary photographers to recreate/stage the truth, moving dead bodies around just to get better result/composition etc.